Svechnikov Nikolai Ivanovich, Candidate of engineering sciences, candidate of juridical sciences, associate professor, acting head of sub-department of law enforcement, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), nikols1558@ yandex.ru
Background. A constant desire to improve governing bodies is typical for a democratic and legal state. The need to modernize ways of formation and a structure of local governments is still relevant for our state as well. This situation causes the current changes in the domestic legislation governing the functions and powers of local authorities. Relevance of the research theme justifies the need to consider the historical experience of the reform of local government in Russia. The purpose of the articl is to examine the stages of preparation for the reform of local governments in Russia in the middle of XIX century and the prerequisites of electoral rights of the rural population of the Russian Empire.
Materials and methods. Implementation of the research tasks was achieved on the basis of the analysis of legal acts of the pre-reform period and drafts of legal acts developed for the Zemstvo reform. Particular attention was paid to the study of works of statesmen S. S. Lanskoy, P. D. Kiselev, P. A. Valuev, M. A. Korf and law scholars A. A. Kornilov, K. A. Pajitnov and others, as well as works by contemporary historians and lawyers-researchers L. E. Lapteva, A. Y.Shutova, E. N. Morozova and others. The methodological basis of the research were the methods of historical and legal analysis, comparative legal and logical methods that allowed to compare the content and meaning of certain provisions of legislative acts’ drafts, ideas and suggestions of the pre-reform period with the provisions of statutes, being a legal framework of the Zemstvo reform.
Results. As a result, the studies have established the influence of social, economic and political conditions on occurrence of the electoral rights of the rural population of the Russian Empire, the normative definition of the status of local government bodies.
Conclusions. Studying the experience of preparation and implementation of the Zemstvo Reform in the Russian Empire allowed to determine the cause of inefficient activity of the zemstvos, of the undeveloped system of zemstvo institutions, of the lack of representatives from all the society groups in them. In turn, the analysis of the causes allows us to avoid repeating of the same mistakes at the present stage of the reform of municipal bodies, and to improve the laws governing them.
local self-government bodies, self-government, zemstvo, public elections, zemstvo institutions, class representatives, elective district council establishments, civil society, electoral sistem, district, province.
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